In a hotel
or motel, lighting is usually required around the clock to help create
an environment in which guests feel comfortable and safe. Lighting must
also remain on for long hours in restaurants to create atmosphere and
enhance food presentation.
In the 1970s, energy efficiency in the hospitality industry meant removing
every second light bulb. Although there are still savings from reducing
the number of lights - including switching from four- to two-tube fluorescent
fixtures - new lighting technologies generally use less energy without
reducing the quality and quantity of light.
Exterior lighting must create a positive
impression not only to attract people to your establishment, but also
to provide a sense of comfort and security between the parking area
and entrance. Use photocells to ensure outside lights operate only
at night. Metal halide and other high-intensity discharge (HID) lamps
last longer than either incandescent or mercury-vapour sources, offer
energy savings from 75 to 90 percent and provide the same safe and
Lobbies set the ambience of your establishment.
Lobby lighting also helps highlight artwork and other interior design
features. Save up to 50 percent on energy costs by using halogen lights.
Some are not only brighter than traditional incandescent bulbs; they
also provide a more focused beam and can be aimed for more controlled
Bathrooms often use incandescent lamps
that waste energy or cool-white fluorescent lamps that make guests'
skin tones appear washed out. Higher-quality fluorescent lamps reflect
truer flesh tones and bring out the colours in the décor while saving
Guest rooms require a degree of lighting
that ensures comfort for a number of tasks, including reading, relaxing,
entertaining and watching television. One of the most common complaints
about hotel rooms is poor lighting. Traditional incandescent bulbs
generate heat and, as a result, increase cooling loads that waste
even more energy. Compact fluorescents, on the other hand, usually
fit in traditional fixtures and offer the similar amount of light
while using up to 75 percent less electricity. Fluorescent and compact
fluorescents bulbs have seen significant improvements to their colour-rendering
abilities in recent years.
Corridor lighting must often remain on
at all times, so energy-efficient fixtures are particularly important.
T8 and T5 fluorescent bulbs are as much as 30 percent more efficient
than incandescent bulbs. If corridors are too bright, consider switching
to low-ballast-factor (LBF) fixtures that use standard bulbs but consume
less energy. Many hotels are realizing significant savings by using
light-emitting diode (LED), electroluminescent, photoluminescent and
light-rope exit signs that have approximate paybacks in less than
Ballrooms and conference rooms require
lighting for many occasions - from sales presentations to wedding
receptions. Decorative halogen lights are dimmable and offer a similar
quality of light as incandescent bulbs. Halogens also produce a bright
white light that can add sparkle to crystal, china and chandeliers.
Restaurant lighting varies with the form
and function of each establishment, and requirements differ greatly.
As fast-food and family restaurants are typically brightly lit, these
facilities can realize considerable savings by making the most of
available natural light during the day. On the other hand, restaurants
and pubs that rely on low-lighting levels to create a relaxing mood
or intimate atmosphere can benefit from savings by installing dimmable
halogen lights (described on page 20 under "Ballrooms and conference
rooms"). Even when set to provide 100 percent illumination for cleaning
and off-hour maintenance, these lights will save you as much as 50
percent in energy costs.
Kitchens must be well lit to ensure efficient
food preparation, minimize the risk of accidents and encourage thorough
housekeeping. T12 fluorescents are currently the most common kitchen-lighting
fixtures, but switching to T5s or T8s with electronic ballasts will
save you energy and provide short paybacks. Consider also installing
timed switches or low-temperature occupancy sensors in walk-in refrigerators
Back-of-house areas - such as employee
break rooms, storage areas and office space - rarely require light
24 hours a day. Occupancy sensors ensure lights are on only when someone
is in a room. With many models priced from $50 to $100, these sensors
can reduce energy consumption 15 to 80 percent depending on usage.
Replacing fixtures with T5 or T8 compact fluorescents will contribute
to even greater energy reductions.
||Annual Open Hours
||Savings (per unit)
||Cost (per unit)
||Approx. Savings (per unit)
||26-W compact fluorescent
||622 kWh 2.2 GJ
|Incandescent exit signs
||LED exit signs
||403 kWh 1.5 GJ
34-W fluorescents with magnetic ballasts
||Two T8 32-W fluorescents with LBF electronic ballasts
||263 kWh 1.0 GJ (for the pair)
||$70 (for the pair)
|400-W mercury- vapour security lighting
||250-W metal halide
||609 kWh 2.2 GJ
* Ballast energy will increase power draw, so actual wattage
- both old and new - may be higher than indicated on the bulb or system.
Assumes electricity costs of $0.07/kWh, including demand
and service charges.
Prices are estimated, so actual results may vary. There are 8760 hours
in one year.
This chart does not reflect maintenance savings resulting from longer
Refer to Step 5: Calculate Your Savings to learn how to determine paybacks.
The Vocabulary of Lighting
Shape and size codes determine the many types and styles of bulbs on
the market. For example, a 60A19 refers to a 60-watt arbitrary
- or standard-shaped - incandescent bulb with a maximum diameter
of 23/8 in. (each unit equals 1/8 in., so 19 x 1/8
= 23/8 in.). An F32T8/841-48 is a 48-in.-long 32-watt
tubular fluorescent bulb, 1 in. in diameter (8 x- 1/8 in.),
with a colour rendering index of 80 and a 4100°K colour temperature.
Light output (or luminous flux), measured in lumens, is the quantity
of light per second. For example, a 100-watt incandescent produces about
1750 lumens compared with a 25-watt fluorescent at about 1550 lumens.
Lux is the amount of light that strikes a surface - such as a wall or
floor - and is equivalent to lumens per square metre or 0.093 foot candles.
In hotels, lighting levels are typically 300 to 400 lux. In most restaurants,
dining areas are as low as 75 lux, but fast-food outlets are often 500
lux or more. Storeroom levels are typically low at 100 to 300 lux. These
recommended lighting levels are rising to account for the aging eyes
of the average Canadian - increasing the need for more energy-efficient
Efficacy measures the conversion of electrical energy into light in lumens
per watt (lm/W). The efficacy of an incandescent bulb is only 10 to 20
lm/W compared with a compact fluorescent at 50 to 65 lm/W, T8 liner lamps
at 80 to 100 lm/W, metal halide at 75 to 120 lm/W and a low-pressure sodium
light at 120 to 190 lm/W.
Colour rendering index (CRI) is an objective measurement of how well
colours can be seen. For example, incandescents have a rating of 97; fluorescents,
52 to 94; and metal halides, 65. Fluorescent and other bulbs can come
in a range of colours - from white to pink to yellow - and for aesthetics,
you should take care not to mix bulb colours in one area.
Lamp life is an important factor when choosing your lights since costs
are incurred both when you buy the bulbs and each time your maintenance
staff must change them. Incandescent bulbs have the shortest life at only
2000 hours. Fluorescents, metal halides and other energy-efficient bulbs
often last between 10 000 and 30 000 hours. Some bulbs will dim with age,
so read the specifications to learn the characteristics before purchasing.
Ballasts are electrical devices that limit the current and control the
voltage in fluorescent lamps. Magnetic ballasts are an older technology
that often hum and flicker. If produced before 1979, these ballasts may
contain harmful polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Electronic ballasts
systems are often approximately 30 percent more efficient, eliminate flicker
and noise and - unlike magnetic ballasts - can be dimmed for softer illumination
and even greater energy savings.
Reflectors have mirror-like or reflective white surfaces that focus light
and increase lumen output. By using reflectors, you can generally reduce
the total wattage and number of lamps by 25 percent with no decrease in
overall light levels.
Dimming controls are useful for providing supplemental illumination in
areas where natural light is available during the day. Dimmers also help
create an intimate atmosphere or control lighting levels for presentations.
Dimming controls can extend lamp life and reduce lighting costs by 35
to 70 percent, with an approximate payback of 3.0 to 7.5 years. For more
information, see the Control Systems section.
Daylighting refers to the use of natural light in interior and perimeter
areas. Windows, skylights and translucent daylighting panels (described
in the Building Envelope section) can reduce your daytime lighting
requirements by over 50 percent. Research suggests that the presence of
daylight also helps increase staff productivity and guest-satisfaction
levels. Use bright interior colours to maximize the daylighting effect.