HVAC
Building Control
Fire Safety
Your friend in indoor comfort & safety systems
Home Company Services Case Studies References Agencies Daikin-Vrv Handbook Fires / Hotels Links Save Energy Contact Us
Eco Homes

Solar Water Heeating

Solar Electric Systems
Wind Turbines
Passive Solar Heating
Passive Solar Cooling
Water Conservation
Building Material
Ground Source Heat Pumps
Eco Cases
Save Energy
Solar Water Heating
Solar Electric Systems
Wind Turbines
Passive Solar Heating
Passive Solar Cooling
Building Material
Water Conservation
Ground Source Heat-Pumps
Green Hotels

Glass &Windows Selection

Standalone Systems
Grid Connected Systems
Hybrid Systems
Back-up Systems
Solar Cells
Solar Arrays
Inverters
Change Controller
Direct Systems
Indirect Systems
Thermosiphons
Draindown Systems
Pool Heating Systems
Turbines
Hybrid Systems
Grid Systems
Water Pumping
Using Wind Energy
Enviromental Aspects
Buyer's Guide
Solar Collectors
Flat Plate Collectors
Evacuated Tube Collectors
Concentrating Collectors
Transpired Collectors
Solar Control Systems
Big Hotel Fires
Hotel Fire Cases
Fire Hazard Classification
Hotel Sprinkler Systems

Hotel Fire News

Ask The HvacMan
Air Handling Units
Cooling Towers
Heat Recovery
Psycometry

Steam Generation

Lighting

In a hotel or motel, lighting is usually required around the clock to help create an environment in which guests feel comfortable and safe. Lighting must also remain on for long hours in restaurants to create atmosphere and enhance food presentation.

In the 1970s, energy efficiency in the hospitality industry meant removing every second light bulb. Although there are still savings from reducing the number of lights – including switching from four- to two-tube fluorescent fixtures – new lighting technologies generally use less energy without reducing the quality and quantity of light.

  • Exterior lighting must create a positive impression not only to attract people to your establishment, but also to provide a sense of comfort and security between the parking area and entrance. Use photocells to ensure outside lights operate only at night. Metal halide and other high-intensity discharge (HID) lamps last longer than either incandescent or mercury-vapour sources, offer energy savings from 75 to 90 percent and provide the same safe and inviting illumination.

  • Lobbies set the ambience of your establishment. Lobby lighting also helps highlight artwork and other interior design features. Save up to 50 percent on energy costs by using halogen lights. Some are not only brighter than traditional incandescent bulbs; they also provide a more focused beam and can be aimed for more controlled illumination.

  • Bathrooms often use incandescent lamps that waste energy or cool-white fluorescent lamps that make guests' skin tones appear washed out. Higher-quality fluorescent lamps reflect truer flesh tones and bring out the colours in the décor while saving energy.

  • Guest rooms require a degree of lighting that ensures comfort for a number of tasks, including reading, relaxing, entertaining and watching television. One of the most common complaints about hotel rooms is poor lighting. Traditional incandescent bulbs generate heat and, as a result, increase cooling loads that waste even more energy. Compact fluorescents, on the other hand, usually fit in traditional fixtures and offer the similar amount of light while using up to 75 percent less electricity. Fluorescent and compact fluorescents bulbs have seen significant improvements to their colour-rendering abilities in recent years.

  • Corridor lighting must often remain on at all times, so energy-efficient fixtures are particularly important. T8 and T5 fluorescent bulbs are as much as 30 percent more efficient than incandescent bulbs. If corridors are too bright, consider switching to low-ballast-factor (LBF) fixtures that use standard bulbs but consume less energy. Many hotels are realizing significant savings by using light-emitting diode (LED), electroluminescent, photoluminescent and light-rope exit signs that have approximate paybacks in less than two years.

  • Ballrooms and conference rooms require lighting for many occasions – from sales presentations to wedding receptions. Decorative halogen lights are dimmable and offer a similar quality of light as incandescent bulbs. Halogens also produce a bright white light that can add sparkle to crystal, china and chandeliers.

  • Restaurant lighting varies with the form and function of each establishment, and requirements differ greatly. As fast-food and family restaurants are typically brightly lit, these facilities can realize considerable savings by making the most of available natural light during the day. On the other hand, restaurants and pubs that rely on low-lighting levels to create a relaxing mood or intimate atmosphere can benefit from savings by installing dimmable halogen lights (described on page 20 under “Ballrooms and conference rooms”). Even when set to provide 100 percent illumination for cleaning and off-hour maintenance, these lights will save you as much as 50 percent in energy costs.

    Kitchens must be well lit to ensure efficient food preparation, minimize the risk of accidents and encourage thorough housekeeping. T12 fluorescents are currently the most common kitchen-lighting fixtures, but switching to T5s or T8s with electronic ballasts will save you energy and provide short paybacks. Consider also installing timed switches or low-temperature occupancy sensors in walk-in refrigerators and freezers.

  • Back-of-house areas – such as employee break rooms, storage areas and office space – rarely require light 24 hours a day. Occupancy sensors ensure lights are on only when someone is in a room. With many models priced from $50 to $100, these sensors can reduce energy consumption 15 to 80 percent depending on usage. Replacing fixtures with T5 or T8 compact fluorescents will contribute to even greater energy reductions.

Old System Old Watts* New System New Watts* Annual Open Hours Savings (per unit) Cost (per unit) Approx. Savings (per unit) Approx. Payback
Incandescent 100 26-W compact fluorescent 29 8760 622 kWh 2.2 GJ $25 $44 0.6 years
Incandescent exit signs 50 LED exit signs 4 8760 403 kWh 1.5 GJ $45 $28 1.6 years
Two T12
34-W fluorescents with magnetic ballasts
81 Two T8 32-W fluorescents with LBF electronic ballasts 51 8760 263 kWh 1.0 GJ (for the pair) $70 (for the pair) $18 3.9 years
400-W mercury- vapour security lighting 424 250-W metal halide 285 4380 609 kWh 2.2 GJ $250 $43 5.8 years

* Ballast energy will increase power draw, so actual wattage – both old and new – may be higher than indicated on the bulb or system.

Assumes electricity costs of $0.07/kWh, including demand and service charges.
Prices are estimated, so actual results may vary. There are 8760 hours in one year.
This chart does not reflect maintenance savings resulting from longer lamp lives.
Refer to Step 5: Calculate Your Savings to learn how to determine paybacks.

The Vocabulary of Lighting

Shape and size codes determine the many types and styles of bulbs on the market. For example, a 60A19 refers to a 60-watt arbitrary – or standard-shaped – incandescent bulb with a maximum diameter of 23/8 in. (each unit equals 1/8 in., so 19 x 1/8 = 23/8 in.). An F32T8/841–48 is a 48-in.-long 32-watt tubular fluorescent bulb, 1 in. in diameter (8 x- 1/8 in.), with a colour rendering index of 80 and a 4100°K colour temperature.

Light output (or luminous flux), measured in lumens, is the quantity of light per second. For example, a 100-watt incandescent produces about 1750 lumens compared with a 25-watt fluorescent at about 1550 lumens.

Lux is the amount of light that strikes a surface – such as a wall or floor – and is equivalent to lumens per square metre or 0.093 foot candles. In hotels, lighting levels are typically 300 to 400 lux. In most restaurants, dining areas are as low as 75 lux, but fast-food outlets are often 500 lux or more. Storeroom levels are typically low at 100 to 300 lux. These recommended lighting levels are rising to account for the aging eyes of the average Canadian – increasing the need for more energy-efficient lighting.

Efficacy measures the conversion of electrical energy into light in lumens per watt (lm/W). The efficacy of an incandescent bulb is only 10 to 20 lm/W compared with a compact fluorescent at 50 to 65 lm/W, T8 liner lamps at 80 to 100 lm/W, metal halide at 75 to 120 lm/W and a low-pressure sodium light at 120 to 190 lm/W.

Colour rendering index (CRI) is an objective measurement of how well colours can be seen. For example, incandescents have a rating of 97; fluorescents, 52 to 94; and metal halides, 65. Fluorescent and other bulbs can come in a range of colours – from white to pink to yellow – and for aesthetics, you should take care not to mix bulb colours in one area.

 

Lamp life is an important factor when choosing your lights since costs are incurred both when you buy the bulbs and each time your maintenance staff must change them. Incandescent bulbs have the shortest life at only 2000 hours. Fluorescents, metal halides and other energy-efficient bulbs often last between 10 000 and 30 000 hours. Some bulbs will dim with age, so read the specifications to learn the characteristics before purchasing.

Ballasts are electrical devices that limit the current and control the voltage in fluorescent lamps. Magnetic ballasts are an older technology that often hum and flicker. If produced before 1979, these ballasts may contain harmful polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Electronic ballasts systems are often approximately 30 percent more efficient, eliminate flicker and noise and – unlike magnetic ballasts – can be dimmed for softer illumination and even greater energy savings.

Reflectors have mirror-like or reflective white surfaces that focus light and increase lumen output. By using reflectors, you can generally reduce the total wattage and number of lamps by 25 percent with no decrease in overall light levels.

Dimming controls are useful for providing supplemental illumination in areas where natural light is available during the day. Dimmers also help create an intimate atmosphere or control lighting levels for presentations. Dimming controls can extend lamp life and reduce lighting costs by 35 to 70 percent, with an approximate payback of 3.0 to 7.5 years. For more information, see the Control Systems section.

Daylighting refers to the use of natural light in interior and perimeter areas. Windows, skylights and translucent daylighting panels (described in the Building Envelope section) can reduce your daytime lighting requirements by over 50 percent. Research suggests that the presence of daylight also helps increase staff productivity and guest-satisfaction levels. Use bright interior colours to maximize the daylighting effect.

 
 
Google
 
Web www.iklim.com
  Discuss on the Message Board
   
 
  http://www.iklimnet.com
 
Book & Magazine
Interstate Bank Fire
Beverly Hills Club Fire
MGM Fire
Firehause Magazine
Special Fires
Hotel Fires
Ship Fires
Industrial Fires
Warehouse Fires

Restaurant/Nightclub Discotheque-Fires

High Rise Fires
Fires
Fires ABC
Big Building Fires
Book About Fires
Fire Stats
Fire Board

Books About Fires

Hotels
Enviroment
Energy Save
Hotels & Legionella
Green Hotels
Hotel Design Books
Control Software