Refrigerant based systems, often referred to as DX (Direct Expansion),
are by far the most efficient, cheapest and most energy efficient
form of air conditioning and generally operate split or multi-split
Split means that there is a room or area mounted unit, generally
a fan coil and an external unit, a condensing unit or heat pump.
Refrigerant is pumped around connecting pipework from the compressor
in the condensing unit to the room unit (evaporator) where it
expands causing a refrigeration effect, the room air is blown
across the coil causing cooling.
The refrigerant carrying the rejected room heat is pumped back
to the outdoor unit where it is condensed, giving off the heat
to outside air via a dry coil and fan. The refrigerant is then
compressed into liquid again by the compressor and the cycle continues.What
There is often a lot of media attention given to refrigerants,
most of the attention being alarmist, but the truth of the matter
is that refrigerants have to be used for cooling.
The most common refrigerants now in use for air conditioning
are R22 and R407C. R134A is also increasingly used in water chillers.
Refrigerants only damage the ozone layer or atmosphere if they
There are now strict controls on the handling, use, and release
of refrigerants, so you should ensure that you employ a reputable
organisation to install or service your air conditioning.