Ask The HvacMan
Air Grilles
Air Diffusers
Air Quailty
All Air Systems
All Water Systems
Building .Managament Systems ..BMS
Cooling Towers
Cooling Load Calculation
Energy Saving
Duct ,Smacna
Dampers ,Air
Dust Collection
Fire Dampers
Glass Selection
Heat Exchangers,water
Heat Recovery
Heat Tracing Systems
Hepa Filters
Hvac Applications
Humidifiers / Dehumidifiers
Insulation , Duct
Insulation , Pipe
Insulation , Sound
Nano Tech.,In Building
Occupancy Sensors
Pneumatic Conveying
Pool Ventilation
Process Piping
Radiant Heating
Refrigerant Systems
Solar Collectors
Steam Generation
Tables & Charts Gnr.
VAV Sytems
VRV Systems
Solar Collectors
Flat Plate Collectors
Evacuated Tube Collectors
Concentrating Collectors
Transpired Collectors
Solar Control Systems
Standalone Systems
Grid Connected Systems
Hybrid Systems
Back-up Systems
Solar Cells
Solar Arrays
Change Controller
Hybrid Systems
Grid Systems
Water Pumping
Using Wind Energy
Enviromental Aspects
Buyer's Guide
Save Energy
Solar Water Heating
Solar Electric Systems
Wind Turbines
Passive Solar Heating
Passive Solar Cooling
Building Material
Water Conservation
Ground Source Heat-Pumps
Green Hotels

Glass &Windows Selection



Energy conservation was strongly emphasized in the 1970âs, following the oil crisis. The need to conserve energy led to reduced ventilation rates. Buildings were sealed to exclude hot summer air and cold winter air. Computers and other office technologies led to more heat output, chemical hazards, and job stress.

By 1988, The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) found that over 20% of its calls were about indoor air quality. Of the over 500 investigations done by NIOSH, over 50% had a primary problem of inadequate ventilation. The next most common findings were inside contamination (15%), outside contamination (10%), and building materials themselves (4%).

What kinds of things can be done?

Inside Source Reduction

For example:
· Sometimes cleaning compounds are used in higher concentrations than are recommended by the manufacturer resulting in irritating vapors. Recommended dilutions should be used.

· Carpets in heavy traffic areas can retain dust and chemical residues. More frequent vacuuming, with appropriate filters, is helpful in reducing dust levels. Carpet shampoos themselves can be a source of contamination.

· Pesticides should only be applied when the building is unoccupied. Offices should be thoroughly ventilated before workers return to the building. Use of less toxic pesticides such as boric acid for cockroaches may be appropriate.

· If smoking is allowed, separate well-ventilated areas should be provided for that activity.

· Equipment that generates contaminants such as photocopiers and laser printers should be equipped with local exhaust ventilation so that the contaminants that they generate do not get into the general ventilation system and spread throughout the building. Carbonless copy paper and white-out (water-based is OK) can sometimes cause problems.

Outside Source Reduction

For example:
· Fresh air intakes should not be located near sources of air contamination such as loading docks where trucks may idle, or near parking lots, or dumpster storage. Ventilation intakes should not be located downwind of air exhausts or other sources. Intakes or exhausts may need to be relocated or to have air cleaning equipment installed. Fresh air must be clean.

· Construction (or demolition) such as roofing or paving, office renovation such as knocking down walls, laying carpet, painting, etc can create fumes or dusts. This work should be done with proper controls when the offices are not occupied.

Control of Microbial Contamination

For example:
· Most frequently, microbial amplification follows water damage to carpets, ceiling tiles and walls, or furnishings, or standing water in the ventilation system.

· Any spills or leaks must be cleaned up promptly. to prevent mold. If carpet, ceiling tiles or other porous materials have become saturated with water, they should be dried within 48 hours. If this is not possible, wetted sections should be discarded and replaced rather than disinfected.

· Non-porous surfaces where moisture has collected can be cleaned and disinfected with detergents and bleach solutions.

· Drip pans in air condition units should be kept clean and well-drained. Coiling coils should be regularly inspected for cleanliness.

· Humidification may be needed to prevent excessive dryness, but moisture can favor microbes that cause disease. Additives to kill microbes can cause respiratory irritation. For central humidification, dry steam systems are recommended. For smaller units, fanatic attention to cleanliness is crucial



  Discuss on the Message Board
Legionnare Disease
Energy Saving
Control Software
Hotel Design Books

Hotel Design