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The major transportation facilities are airports, ship docks, bus terminals, and passenger car garages. Airplane hangars and freight and mail buildings are also among the types of buildings

to be considered. Freight and mail buildings are usually handled as standard warehouses.

Load Characteristics

Airports, ship docks, and bus terminals operate on a 24 h basis, with a reduced schedule during late night and early morning hours. Airports. Terminal buildings consist of large, open circulating areas, one or more floors high, often with high ceilings, ticketing counters, and various types of stores, concessions, and convenience facilities. Lighting and equipment loads are generally average, but occupancy varies substantially. Exterior loads are, of course, a function of architectural design. The largest single problem often results from thermal drafts created by large entranceways, high ceilings, and long passageways, which have many openings to the outdoors.

Ship Docks. Freight and passenger docks consist of large, highceilinged structures with separate areas for administration, visitors, passengers, cargo storage, and work. The floor of the dock is usually exposed to the outdoors just above the water level. Portions of the side walls are often open while ships are in port. In addition, the large ceiling (roof) area presents a large heating and cooling load. Load characteristics of passenger dock terminals generally require the roof and floors to be well insulated. Occasional heavy occupancy loads in visitor and passenger areas must be considered. Bus Terminals. This building type consists of two general areas: the terminal building, which contains passenger circulation, ticket booths, and stores or concessions, and the bus loading area. Waiting rooms and passenger concourse areas are subject to a highly variable people load. Occupancy density may reach 1 m2 per person and, at extreme periods, 0.3 to 0.5 m2 per person.

Design Concepts Heating and cooling is generally centralized or provided for each building or group in a complex. In large, open circulation areas of transportation centers, any all-air system with zone control can be used. Where ceilings are high, air distribution is often along the side wall to concentrate the air conditioning where desired and avoid disturbing stratified air.

Perimeter areas may require heating by radiation, a fan-coil system, or hot air blown up from the sill or floor grilles, particularly in colder climates. Hydronic perimeter radiant ceiling panels may be especially suited to these high-load areas. Airports. Airports generally consist of one or more central terminal buildings connected by long passageways or trains to rotundas containing departure lounges for airplane loading. Most terminals have portable telescoping-type loading bridges connecting departure lounges to the airplanes. These passageways eliminate the heating and cooling problems associated with traditional permanent structure passenger loading. Because of difficulties in controlling the air balance due to the many outside openings, high ceilings, and long, low passageways (which often are not air conditioned), the terminal building (usually air conditioned) should be designed to maintain a substantial positive pressure. Zoning is generally required in passenger waiting areas, in departure lounges, and at ticket counters to take care of the widely variable occupancy loads.

Main entrances may be designed with vestibules and windbreaker partitions to minimize undesirable air currents within the building. Hangars must be heated in cold weather, and ventilation may be required to eliminate possible fumes (although fueling is seldom permitted in hangars). Gas-fired, electric, and low- and high-intensity radiant heaters are used extensively in hangars because they provide comfort for employees at relatively low operating costs. Hangars may also be heated by large air blast heaters or floorburied heated liquid coils. Local exhaust air systems may be used to evacuate fumes and odors that result in smaller ducted systems. Under some conditions, exhaust systems may be portable and may possibly include odor-absorbing devices.

Ship Docks. In severe climates, occupied floor areas may contain heated floor panels. The roof should be well insulated, and, in appropriate climates, evaporative spray cooling substantially reduces the summer load. Freight docks are usually heated and well ventilated but seldom cooled. High ceilings and openings to the outdoors may present serious draft problems unless the systems are designed properly. Vestibule entrances or air curtains help minimize cross drafts. Air door blast heaters at cargo opening areas may be quite effective. Ventilation of the dock terminal should prevent noxious fumes and odors from reaching occupied areas. Therefore, occupied areas should be under positive pressure, and the cargo and storage areas exhausted to maintain negative air pressure. Occupied areas should be enclosed to simplify any local air conditioning. In many respects, these are among the most difficult buildings to heat and cool because of their large open areas. If each function is properly enclosed, any commonly used all-air or large fan-coil system is suitable. If areas are left largely open, the best approach is to concentrate on proper building design and heating and cooling of the openings. High-intensity infrared spot heating is often advantageous

Exhaust ventilation from tow truck and cargo areas should be exhausted through the roof of the dock terminal. Bus Terminals. Conditions are similar to those for airport terminals, except that all-air systems are more practical because ceiling heights are often lower, and perimeters are usually flanked by stores or office areas. The same systems are applicable as for airport terminals, but ceiling air distribution is generally feasible. Properly designed radiant hydronic or electric ceiling systems may be used if high-occupancy latent loads are fully considered. This may result in smaller duct sizes than are required for all-air systems and may be advantageous where bus loading areas are above the terminal and require structural beams. This heating and cooling system reduces the volume of the building that must be conditioned. In areas where latent load is a concern, heating-only panels may be used at the perimeter, with a cooling-only interior system. The terminal area air supply system should be under high positive pressure to ensure that no fumes and odors infiltrate from bus areas. Positive exhaust from bus loading areas is essential for a properly operating total system .

Special Considerations Airports.

Filtering outdoor air with activated charcoal filters should be considered for areas subject to excessive noxious fumes from jet engine exhausts. However, locating outside air intakes as remotely as possible from airplanes is a less expensive and more positive approach. Where ionization filtration enhancers are used, outdoor air quantities are sometimes reduced due to cleaner air. However, care must be taken to maintain sufficient amounts of outside air for space pressurization. Ship Docks. Ventilation design must ensure that fumes and odors from forklifts and cargo in work areas do not penetrate occupied and administrative areas. Bus Terminals. The primary concerns with enclosed bus loading areas are health and safety problems, which must be handled by proper ventilation Although diesel engine fumes are generally not as noxious as gasoline fumes, bus terminals often have many buses loading and unloading at the same time, and the total amount of fumes and odors may be quite disturbing. Enclosed Garages. In terms of health and safety, enclosed bus loading areas and automobile parking garages present the most serious problems in these buildings. Three major problems are encountered. The first and most serious is emission of carbon monoxide (CO) by cars and oxides of nitrogen by buses, which can cause serious illness and possibly death. The second problem is oil and gasoline fumes, which may cause nausea and headaches and can also create a fire hazard. The third is lack of air movement and the resulting stale atmosphere that develops because of the increased carbon dioxide content in the air. This condition may cause headaches or grogginess. Most codes require a minimum ventilation rate to ensure that the CO concentration does not exceed safe limits.

All underground garages should have facilities for testing the CO concentration or should have the garage checked periodically. Clogged duct systems; improperly operating fans, motors, or dampers; clogged air intake or exhaust louvers, etc., may not allow proper air circulation. Proper maintenance is required to minimize any operational defects.







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