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Human behaviour/evacuation model.
  • A PC based evacuation model that simulates individual
    people, behaviour and enclosure details. The model
    includes aspects of people-people, people-structure and
    people-environment interaction. It is capable of simulating
    thousands of people in large geometries and include fire

    Modeler(s), Organization(s): EXODUS development Team, FSEG, The University of
    Greenwich, key members consist of Prof Ed Galea, Dr
    Peter Lawrence, Dr Steve Gwynne, Mr Lazaros Fillipidis,
    Mr David Cooney and Mr Daren Blackshields.

    User’s Guide:
    buildingEXODUS V3.0 User Guide and Technical Manual,
    Doc Rev 3.0, May 2000.

    Technical References:
    buildingEXODUS User Guide and Technical Manual


    “A Systematic Comparison of Model Predictions Produced
    by the buildingEXODUS Evacuation Model and the
    Tsukuba Pavilion Evacuation Data” S Gwynne, E Galea, P
    Lawrence, M Owen, L Filippidis, Applied Fire Science,
    Vol. 7, No.3, pp 235-266, 1998. ISSN 1044-4300.

    “A comparison of predictions from the buildingEXODUS
    Evacuation Model with Experimental data”, E Galea, S
    Gwynne, M Owen, P Lawrence, L Filippidis, Proc Human

    “Adapting the buildingEXODUS Evacuation Model for
    Hospital Specific Evacuation Scenarios”, E Galea, P
    Lawrence, M Owen, L Filippidis, Proceedings of the 8th
    International Fire Science and Engineering Conference:
    Interflam'99, Vol. 2, pp 1247-1252, Edinburgh, Scotland,
    June 29 – July 1st 1999, published by Interscience
    Communications Ltd, London, UK, 1999. ISBN 0 9532312

  • “Evacuation of a Theatre:Exercise vs Calculations”, H
    Weckman, Slehtimaki and S. Mannikko, Fire and
    Materials, v23, 6, pp357-362,Nov-Dec 1999.

    “Validation of the buildingEXODUS Evacuation Model”, S
    Gwynne, E R Galea, P Lawrence, M Owen, L Filippidis,
    Report 98/IM/29, CMS Press London, ISBN 1899991298,

    “Adaptive Decision Making in Response to Crowd
    Formations in buildingEXODUS”, S Gwynne, E R Galea,
    P Lawrence, M Owen, L Filippidis, Journal of Applied Fire
    Science, Vol. 8 (4), pp 265-289, 1999.

    “An Investigation of the Aspects of Occupant Behaviour
    Required for Evacuation Modelling” S Gwynne, E Galea,
    M Owen, P Lawrence, Journal of Applied Fire Science,
    Vol. 8(1), pp 19-59, 1998-99. ISSN 1044-4300.

    Contact Professor E. Galea, FSEG, The University of
    Greenwich, 30 Park Row, Greenwich, UK SE10 9LS,

    Annual commercial licenses: UK£4000 Level 2, UK£2000
    Level 1, discounts available for education, fire brigades,
    local authorities, etc.

    Intel architecture running Windows 95, 98 or NT 4.0. Not
    yet validated under Windows 2000.


    Size: Approximately 40MB of disk space and a minimum of
    10MB of free memory.
    Contact Information: Prof Ed Galea FSEG, The University of Greenwich, 30
    Park Row, Greenwich, UK SE10 9LS, exodus@gre.ac.uk
    +44 (0)20-8331-8730.

    The EXODUS software attempts to take into consideration people-people, people-fire and
    people-structure interactions. The model tracks the trajectory of each individual as they
    make their way out of the enclosure, or are overcome by fire hazards such as heat, smoke
    and toxic gases. More information about EXODUS can be found on our web pages at
    http://fseg.gre.ac.uk/exodus/. The following is a brief introduction into

    EXODUS is a suite of software tools designed to simulate the evacuation of large
    numbers of people from a variety of enclosures. The buildingEXODUS model comprises
    five core interacting sub-models, these are the Occupant, Movement, Behaviour, Toxicity
    and Hazard sub-models. The software, written in C++ using object orientated techniques,
    is rule-based, the progressive motion and behaviour of each individual being determined by
    a set of heuristics or rules.

    The spatial and temporal dimensions within buildingEXODUS are spanned by a
    two-dimensional spatial grid and a simulation clock (SC). The spatial grid maps out the
    geometry of the building, locating exits, internal compartments, obstacles, etc. Geometries
    with multiple floors can be made up of multiple grids connected by staircases, with each
    floor being allocated a separate window. The building layout can be specified using either a
    DXF file produced by a CAD package, or the interactive tools provided, and may then be
    stored in a geometry library for later use. The grid is made up of nodes and arcs with each
    node representing a small region of space and each arc representing the distance between
    each node. Individuals travel from node to node along the arcs.

    On the basis of an individual's personal attributes, the Behaviour Sub-model determines
    the occupant’s response to the current situation, and passes its decision on to the
    Movement Sub-model. The Behaviour Sub-model functions on two levels. These are
    known as GLOBAL and LOCAL behaviour. GLOBAL behaviour involves implementing an
    escape strategy that may lead an occupant to exit via their nearest serviceable exit or most
    familiar exit. The occupants familiarity with a particular building may be determined by
    the user prior to commencing the simulation. It is also possible to assign individuals with
    an itinerary of tasks – such as visit a pre-defined location - that must be completed prior
    to evacuation.

    The desired GLOBAL behaviour is set by the user, but may be modified or overridden
    through the dictates of LOCAL behaviour. The LOCAL behaviour includes such

    considerations as determining the occupants initial response to the call to evacuate i.e. will
    the occupant react immediately or after a short period of time or display behavioural
    inaction, conflict resolution, overtaking and the selection of possible detouring routes. The
    manner in which an occupant will react to local situations is determined in part by their
    attributes. As certain behaviour rules, such as conflict resolution, are probabilistic in nature,
    the model will not produce identical results if a simulation is repeated.

    The Toxicity submodel determines the physiological impact of the environment upon the
    occupant. To determine the effect of the fire hazards on occupants, EXODUS uses a
    Fractional Effective Dose (FED) toxicity model, this assumes that the effects of certain
    fire hazards are related to the dose received rather than the exposure concentration. The
    model calculates the ratio of the dose received over time to the effective dose that causes
    incapacitation or death, and sums these ratios during the exposure. When the total
    reaches unity, the toxic effect is predicted to occur. Within buildingEXODUS, as the
    FED approaches unity the occupant’s mobility, agility, and travel rates can be reduced
    making it more difficult for the affected occupant to escape. The core toxicity model
    implemented within buildingEXODUS is the FED model of Purser. This model
    considers the toxic and physical hazards associated with elevated temperature, thermal
    radiation, HCN, CO, CO2 and low O2 and estimates the time to incapacitation. In
    addition to this behaviour, the occupant is allowed to stagger through smoke filled
    environments and is slowed down according to the data of Jin. Occupants are also given
    the ability to select another exit path when faced with a smoke barrier based on their
    familiarity with the structure.

    The thermal and toxic environment is determined by the Hazard submodel. This
    distributes hazards throughout the environment as a function of time and location.
    buildingEXODUS does not predict these hazards but can accept experimental data or
    numerical data from other models. A software link has been established between the
    buildingEXODUS and the CFAST zone model. This allows CFAST (version 4.0) history
    files to be automatically passed to the buildingEXODUS model, thereby enabling the
    buildingEXODUS and CFAST models to interact in a relatively straight forward manner.

    To aid in the interpretation of the results produced by buildingEXODUS several data
    analysis tools have been developed. These are intended to be used once a simulation has
    been completed and enable large data output files to be searched and specific data
    selectively and efficiently extracted. In addition, a post-processor virtual-reality graphics
    environment has been developed, providing an animated three-dimensional
    representation of the evacuation

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