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Computer Models For Fire and Smoke
  • Model Name: EgressPro
    Version: 02
    Classification: Consolidated egress model
    Very Short Description: An egress model to predict egress times and relevant
    parameters for a deterministic time-line analysis for a user
    selected room, corridor, and stair arrangement.

    Modeler(s), Organization(s): SimCo Consulting

    User’s Guide: Integrated in Help File
    Technical References: Help File
    Validation References: The program uses established engineering relationships as
    given in references listed at the end of the program’s Help
    The egress calculations are based on the theory presented in
    the SFPE Handbook on Fire Protection Engineering as well
    the Draft BS Code of Practice. The process of egress
    movement follows the general concepts of traffic flow.
    The model’s Help file provides a case study to verify the
    programs results.
    Availability: SimCo@alphalink.com.au
    Price: $ 150
    Necessary Hardware: Intel architecture running Windows 95 or higher
    Computer Language: Delphi (pascal)

    Contact Information: Peter Simenko, SimCo@alphalink.com.au
    Detailed Description:

    EgressPro provides a fire-engineering tool for assessing egress conditions during fire
    emergencies in buildings. The program calculates the response of sprinklers/heat or
    smoke detectors and evaluates the response behavior of people from the time of alarm to
    the end of the egress from rooms, floors or buildings on fire. The program predicts the
    flow of groups of persons in emergency based on the relationship between speed of
    movement and the population density. Program provides timing information required for
    the construction of time-line presentations, usually needed in fire engineering reports to
    demonstrate whether the evacuation of the endangered areas could be expected before the
    fire tenability limits are exceeded.

    Fire Detection Time

    The program calculates the time to alarm by calculating the detection time of heat
    detectors/sprinklers or smoke detectors in continuous growth t-squared fires, based on the
    Heskestad differential equations.

    The procedure assumes the detector is located such that it is exposed to both the
    maximum ceiling jet velocity and temperature. Correlation for ceiling jet temperature and
    velocity were determined from limited experimental data: (no beam or truss ceilings, no
    cathedral ceilings, only smooth, horizontal unconfined ceilings).

    Pre-movement Time

    The program enables the selection of the pre-movement time, which depends on the use
    of the building and the type of alarm. Typical values that may be used for design
    purposes are provided for selected alarm types and occupancies [Ref. BS-Draft].

    Room Geometry and Occupant Density

    Room geometry must be entered with the egress door size. Value of the occupant density
    can be selected from the table provided as part of the program. The program multiplies
    the selected density value with the room area and displays it as the total number of
    occupants in the edit box. Alternatively, the user may enter his/her own number of
    occupants in the edit box.

    Stair Geometry and Type

    The travel distance along the line of travel on the stair slope must be entered and the
    stair-tread/riser geometry selected.

    Egress Time Calculations

    The program’s calculations can be summarized as follows:

    The number of occupants included in egress is either entered or calculated by multiplying
    the ‘occupant density’ with the corresponding floor area.

    The specific flow is derived by multiplying the movement speed and the effective
    occupant density. The exit’s effective width is determined by subtracting the boundary
    layer from its clear width.

    The ‘Stair/Corridor Egress Time’ is calculated next. It is the time interval from the time
    when the first occupant enters the stair to the time when the last occupant exits the final
    exit door.

    The continuity of the occupant’s flow is stipulated throughout and the specific flow
    densities and movement speeds are adjusted where their limiting values exceed the
    tabulated critical values.

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